Northumberland, United Kingdom
NorthumberlandAdministrative and historical of northeastern . Its England’s northernmost county, bounded towards the north by , towards the east by the , toward west by the administrative county of (historic county of ), and the south because of the county of . Newcastle ended up being the historical county town (seat) of Northumberland, it is the county’s current administrative centre.
Abolished last year had been the six administrative entities into which the administrative county was split: the districts of , , and and also the boroughs of , , and . The historical county of Northumberland includes the complete administrative county and also the metropolitan boroughs of plus in the metropolitan county of .
Northumberland is a county of highly contrasting landscapes, from the farming east seaside plain therefore the sparsely populated, rugged mountains and moors of the west to your densely populated urban and manufacturing aspects of the and Blyth lake valleys when you look at the south. The county is famed for its crazy, uncovered surroundings: half the location is mountain and moorland, while the British Forestry Commission holds big areas, particularly Kielder, Wark, and Redesdale woodlands. The , rounded uplands with elevations of 1, 000 to 2, 500 foot (300 to 760 metres), form the Scottish border, whilst extend south to create the western border with Cumbria. The western hills and moors, made up of grits and impure limestone, are deeply dissected by the Rivers Rede and North . Carboniferous rocks plunge east and south from the Cheviot Hills towards shore as well as the Tyne area. Along the coast a notable landscape function is Whin Sill, a doleritic (lava) intrusion that types the and Bamburgh Castle Rock and carries parts of a Roman wall surface. The seaside simple, underlain by limestone when you look at the north and coal-bearing rocks in the south, is covered by glacial build up differing in personality from light sands and gravels to hefty clays and loams. The upland grounds are slim, acid, and peaty.
The climate is cool because of the northerly , elevation, and experience of easterly winds. Winters are fairly cool, springs late, and summers cool—temperatures seldom go beyond 68 °F (20 °C)—and the shore experiences fun sea fogs. Rain is modest, including 25 inches (635 mm) on the shore to 50 ins (1, 270 mm) when you look at the Cheviot Hills.
There is significant proof primitive settlement before the established control over the area in 122 ce by constructing from River Tyne on . Following the Romans withdrew in fifth century, the Germanic Angles slowly gained control of the spot. In 547 the master built the fortress at (consequently the seat of Anglo-Saxon leaders) and founded the kingdom of . His grandson, the Destroyer, established the predominance of this Angles in 603 by defeating the combined forces associated with Strathclyde Britons and Scots, in which he took over the neighbouring kingdom of in 605. The region between the Firth of Forth in addition to became called (i.e., land north of Humber) and ended up being the essential powerful associated with the 7th-century Anglo-Saxon says. (Lindisfarne) was the centre for the scatter of Christianity throughout this kingdom.